Goddess of home and hearth, protector of families and children, and overseer of the domestic order, Hestia was a Greek goddess sometimes (though not always) included among the chief Twelve Olympians deities. As the ultimate matron deity, Hestia symbolized the household put in its proper order. Dutiful observance of Hestia was vital to every Greek household, as it secured the crucial link between private morality and public prosperity.

Known as Hestia Giustiniani, this marble statue at the Museo Torlonia in Rome is a Roman copy from the second century CE, based on a Greek original from the fifth century BCE. It is rare among copies and originals, for Hestia was seldom depicted in human form; images of the hearth itself were often used in her place.Unknown

Though little remembered today, the cult of Hestia thrived in its time. In the domestic sphere, observance of Hestia was organized by mothers and marked by the burning of a sacrificial animal—often the domestic pig. In the public sphere, communal fires symbolized Hestia’s watchfulness, and the first and last draughts of every feast were quaffed in her honor.

Etymology

The name of the goddess “Hestia” derives directly from the Greek word hestia, meaning “hearth, fireplace, or altar.” As a central meeting place within the house, as well as the location of sacrifices made in Hestia’s honor, the hearth was an apt symbol for the domestic goddess. Indeed, all hearth fires—both domestic and public—burned in her honor, and extinguishment of such fires was considered an egregious breach of morality.

It should be noted that the name of “Vesta,” the virginal Roman goddess, is derived from the same etymological root. As the Roman goddess of hearth and family, Vesta served as mythological counterpart to Hestia.

Family

Hestia was the daughter of the Titans Cronus and Rhea, the father of the universe and mother of the earth respectively; she was also the eldest sibling of Hera, Demeter, Poseidon, Hades, and Zeus. Hestia was not only the first born, but also the first to be swallowed by the tyrannical Cronus, who was convinced that his children would overthrow him. When Zeus forced his father to regurgitate his brothers and sisters, Hestia was the last to emerge, making her both the first born of Cronus and the last reborn. As she was a virginal goddess, Hestia had no children.

Mythology

Details about Hestia are scarce, making her personality, chief attributes, and mythology difficult to determine. The Homeric Hymns 24 and 29 give us only a fleeting impression of the goddess. As 24, To Hestia, reads:

Hestia, you who tend the holy house of the lord Apollo, the Far-shooter at goodly Pytho, with soft oil dripping ever from your locks, come now into this house, come, having one mind with Zeus the all-wise—draw near, and withal bestow grace upon my song.1

And in 29, also To Hestia:

Hestia, in the high dwellings of all, both deathless gods and men who walk on earth, you have gained an everlasting abode and highest honor: glorious is your portion and your right. For without you mortals hold no banquet, where one does not duly pour sweet wine in offering to Hestia both first and last.2

There is some doubt that Hestia even belonged to the unofficial pantheon of the Twelve Olympians, as she and Dionysus often exchanged the honor of filling this twelfth slot. On the east frieze of the Parthenon, the Athenian temple of the gods, Dionysus is depicted among the Olympians while Hestia is nowhere to be found.

This is Block E IV of the east frieze of the Parthenon. Dionysus is seated the third from the right with one arm draped over the shoulder of Hermes. For a detailed description and analysis of the frieze’s contents, see the interactive site of the Acropolis Museum and the Greek National Documentation Centre.Parthenon Frieze Repository

What is known about the goddess of the home has been pieced together from snippets of the larger Greek mythos. After her rebirth from Cronus’ stomach, Hestia took part in the Olympian’s war against the Titans in an unknown capacity. Shortly afterward, Hestia found herself pursued romantically by Apollo and Neptune. She rejected their advances, however, as she wished to preserve her virginity. Despite these rejections, the two gods continued their pursuit, leading Hestia to appeal to Zeus to intervene. He granted her request, bringing her into his home to oversee its domestic operations.

A similar tale told by Ovid in the first century BC has Hestia’s virginity threatened by a minor rustic fertility god named Priapus. Shortly after the Olympians’ victory over the Titans, Rhea, the mother goddess of earth, hosted a celebration for the victorious deities. Uninterested in such revelry, Hestia wandered away from the festivities and fell asleep in the woods. A drunk Priapus, who was known for his sexual appetite, soon came upon Hestia and was about to ravish her when a braying donkey woke the sleeping goddess. When the other Olympians arrived on the scene, they berated the besotted Priapus and forbade him from ever joining in their celebrations again. Hestia maintained her prized virginity and Priapus was sent off to cavort with satyrs in the wilderness until the end of time.

Hestia’s absence from the classic stories of Greek mythology suggested much about her modesty and industry. The most tranquil of the gods, Hestia appeared so rarely in the ribald and raucous stories typical of Greek mythology precisely because she so dutifully observed her role in the domestic sphere.

Hestia’s domesticity in turn suggests much about what was expected of Greek mothers as the matrons of the household. Classical Greece was a deeply patriarchal society, where men enjoyed the rights and benefits of public life in the polis. Women, in contrast, were deprived of these rights and privileges and instead confined to the domestic sphere. Dutiful, obedient, and inconspicuous, Hestia embodied these Greek ideals of motherhood and womanhood.

Pop Culture

Hestia makes appearances in several pop culture depictions of Greek mythology. In the Percy Jackson & the Olympians series, Hestia appears as a humble and dutiful goddess who is above the petty politics of the other deities. In the Xena and Hercules television series, her likeness appears in the Cave of Hestia, though she herself does not. In the same series, a religious group known as the Hestian Virgins appear regularly.

References

Bibliography

  1. Hesiod. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica. Translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Perseus Digital Library. https://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0138%3A.

  2. Wikipedia contributors. “Hestia.” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hestia.

Footnotes

  1. Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica, 24.1–5. 

  2. Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica, 29.1–5.