Is Heracles the same as Hercules?
Yes. “Hercules” was the Roman name for the Greek hero Heracles.
Was Heracles a god or a hero?
Both. As a son of Zeus and a mortal woman, Heracles was a demigod but still mortal. In many versions of Heracles’ myth, however, he became a god after his death. Heracles was worshipped as both a god and a hero throughout the ancient Mediterranean world.
Did Heracles fight in the Trojan War?
Yes and no. Heracles did not fight in “the” Trojan War, which the Greeks fought after the Spartan queen Helen was carried off by the Trojan prince Paris. But Heracles did sack the city of Troy single-handedly in one of his adventures (the city was subsequently rebuilt). Even though Heracles was long dead by the time of the famous Trojan War, his iconic bow and arrows were instrumental to the Greeks’ victory.
Who was Heracles’ wife?
Heracles had many wives and lovers. His first wife was Megara, but their marriage ended when Heracles went mad and killed their children (in some versions, he killed Megara too). Heracles’ last wife, Deianira, inadvertently caused Heracles’ death.
Heracles, the son of Zeus and Alcmene (a mortal woman), was a Greek hero and demigod. Since he was the product of one of Zeus’ infidelities, Heracles was hated and hounded by Zeus’ wife Hera. Hera ensured that Heracles’ life was full of hardships and struggle.
Of all Heracles’ heroic deeds, the most important were the Twelve Labors, which the hero was forced to perform for his cousin Eurystheus, the High King of Mycenae. Through these labors as well as his many other exploits, Heracles became known as a champion of civilization and a slayer of monsters. But Heracles was also hot-tempered, violent, and lustful, and these qualities would ultimately lead to his downfall. After his death, Heracles was often worshiped as a god.
The name Heracles is derived from the name of the goddess Hera and the Greek word kleos (meaning “glory”)—it can be translated as “Hera’s glory.” His name is thus an homage to the goddess who was his lifelong enemy.
According to some traditions, Heracles was originally named Alcaeus in honor of his grandfather and was only renamed Heracles later in an attempt to placate a furious Hera. He was known as Hercules in Roman literature.
Said in Greek myth to have been the strongest man who ever lived, Heracles was always depicted as large and muscular. Usually, he can also be identified by his weapons: his club, his bow, and the skin of the Nemean Lion (which he wore as armor).
Heracles was the son of Zeus, the king of the Greek gods, and a mortal woman named Alcmene.1 Alcmene was the daughter of Electryon, the king of Mycenae and a son of the hero Perseus. Alcmene’s husband, the hero Amphitryon, was from an important family, too, also tracing his lineage to Perseus through his father, Alcaeus.
Heracles grew up in Thebes with his half-brother Iphicles; later, Iphicles’ son Iolaus would accompany Heracles on many of his adventures.
Over the course of his storied life, Heracles had many wives and lovers. He was survived by a literal army of children (the Heracleidae), who conquered many of the Greek cities after the Trojan War.
- Fifty daughters of Thestius
Birth and Childhood
Heracles was the son of Zeus and Alcmene, the wife of the hero Amphitryon. Zeus had approached Alcmene in the form of her husband, who was away at war at the time. The same night Zeus slept with Alcmene, Amphitryon came home early and also slept with her. Alcmene was thus impregnated twice on the same night. She eventually gave birth to twins: one of them, Heracles, was Zeus’ son, while the other, Iphicles, was Amphitryon’s.
From the very beginning, Heracles was hated by Hera, Zeus’ queen. Hera was jealous of her husband Zeus’ mortal lovers and children, and even before Heracles was born she tried to destroy him.
While Alcmene was in labor with her twins, Hera tricked Zeus into promising that the next male child born into the House of Perseus would become High King. Hera then forced Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, to delay the births of Heracles and Iphicles by shutting Alcmene’s womb; at the same time, she caused Heracles’ cousin Eurystheus to be born early. Both Heracles and Eurystheus were male descendants of Perseus, but since Eurystheus was born first, Hera had ensured that he and not Heracles would be High King.
According to one myth, Amphitryon and Alcmene feared Hera’s wrath and therefore left Heracles in the wilderness to die. But he was rescued by the goddess Athena, Zeus’ daughter and thus Heracles’ half-sister. Athena brought the infant Heracles with her to Olympus, where she convinced Hera to nurse him. Hera, not recognizing Heracles, took pity on the child and gave him her breast. But the spirited Heracles nursed so strongly that he hurt Hera. When the goddess pushed him away, her milk sprayed across the heavens and formed the Milky Way. Athena then brought the infant back to Alcmene to be raised by her and Amphitryon (who became his foster father).2
In another myth, Hera sent two snakes to kill Heracles when he was still an infant. While Iphicles screamed in fear, Heracles grabbed one snake in each hand and strangled them. His mother found him unharmed and playing with the dead snakes as though they were toys. Amphitryon, shocked, consulted the prophet Tiresias, who prophesied that Heracles would become a great hero.
Heracles’ physical strength went hand in hand with a quick temper. While still only a boy, Heracles accidentally killed his music teacher, Linus, in a fit of rage, so Amphitryon sent him away to herd cattle in the mountains. In one story, invented in the fifth century BCE by the philosopher Prodicus, the young Heracles was approached by the goddesses Virtue and Vice while tending the cattle. The two goddesses offered Heracles a choice between a pleasant but undistinguished life and a hard but glorious life. Heracles chose the latter.3
Later, Heracles married Megara, the daughter of the Theban king Creon. But Hera had not forgotten her hatred of Heracles: she caused him to go mad and kill his family (in some versions, he murdered both Megara and his children, while in others he killed only his children).4
After Heracles was cured of his madness, he consulted the oracle of Delphi to find out how to atone for his crime. He was told to go to his cousin Eurystheus in Mycenae and perform whatever tasks he was assigned. However, in Euripides’ tragedy Heracles, probably performed around 416 BCE, Heracles was driven mad and killed his family only after his service to Eurystheus.
The most familiar exploits of Heracles’ heroic career are the famous Twelve Labors (sometimes also called the “Labors of Heracles” or the “Twelve Labors of Heracles”). These were the tasks that Heracles was forced to perform for his cousin Eurystheus, the High King of Mycenae.
In many accounts, it was Hera herself who helped Eurystheus devise the most difficult and deadly tasks, hoping to destroy Heracles once and for all. But Heracles managed to successfully complete each of his labors, acquiring fame and immortal glory in the process.
In the best-known version of the myth, Heracles was initially instructed to perform ten labors for Eurystheus. But after completing his tenth labor, Eurystheus found a flimsy excuse to add two more, bringing the total to twelve. The canonical list and order of the labors, as reported by the mythographer Apollodorus, is as follows:5
1. The Nemean Lion
Heracles’ first labor was to slay a lion that was terrorizing the city of Nemea. Since the lion’s skin was invulnerable, Heracles could not use his weapons against it and had to kill the lion with his bare hands.
After completing this labor, Heracles wore the skin of the Nemean Lion as armor.
2. The Lernaean Hydra
Heracles’ next labor was to slay the Hydra, a monster with multiple serpent heads (the number of heads varies depending on the source) that lived in a swamp near Lerna.
Heracles discovered that each time one of the monster’s heads was cut off, two new heads would grow in its place. He finally managed to destroy the Hydra with the help of his nephew Iolaus: every time Heracles cut off a head, Iolaus would cauterize the wound with a torch, thus preventing new heads from growing.
After defeating the Hydra, Heracles dipped his arrows in its poisonous blood.
3. The Ceryneian Hind
This was no small task: the Ceryneian Hind was a massive female deer noted for its incredible speed. According to some sources, it had antlers like a stag and breathed fire. Eventually Heracles managed to run down the hind and presented it to Eurystheus.
4. The Erymanthian Boar
Heracles was then tasked with capturing a huge and violent boar on the loose around the marsh of Erymanthia.
The scene in which Heracles brings the boar to Eurystheus was popular in early Greek art: according to this tradition, when Eurystheus saw Heracles coming back with the Erymanthian Boar on his shoulders, he became terrified and hid in a large ceramic storage container called a pithos.
5. The Augean Stables
Heracles’ next labor was as humiliating as it was difficult: he was sent to clean the stables that housed the immortal cattle of King Augeas (a gift from his father Helios). Heracles managed to complete the labor quickly and ingeniously: he diverted the nearby rivers Alphaeus and Penaeus into a ditch he dug around the stables, thus washing the stables clean.
6. The Stymphalian Birds
Heracles was then sent to get rid of the man-eating, bronze-beaked birds who were terrorizing a forest near Stymphalia. Heracles used a rattle given to him by Athena to frighten the birds out of hiding. When the birds flew out of the forest, Heracles was able to shoot and kill many of them with his arrows tipped with the Hydra’s poison.
7. The Cretan Bull
Heracles’ seventh labor took him to the island of Crete. Poseidon had originally sent the Cretan Bull as a gift to his son Minos. It was intended to be sacrificed to Poseidon, but Minos wanted to keep the bull for himself. Poseidon became angry and sent the bull to ravage the land around Minos’ kingdom of Knossos (but only after the bull fathered the Minotaur).
After Heracles captured the bull, Eurystheus released it in Marathon. There, it continued to terrorize the city until it was killed by the Athenian hero Theseus.
8. The Mares of Diomedes
Heracles was then sent to steal the mares of Diomedes, who had been trained by their master to eat human flesh. Heracles accomplished this by feeding Diomedes to his own horses, then binding the animals’ mouths shut and taking them to Eurystheus.
9. The Girdle of Hippolyta
Heracles’ next task was to steal the magnificent girdle of the Amazon queen Hippolyta, which she had received as a gift from her father Ares. When Heracles arrived, he was quickly attacked by the warlike Amazons, but he managed to defeat Hippolyta and bring her girdle to Eurystheus.
10. The Cattle of Geryon
Heracles’ tenth labor took him far from the Greek world, to the western Mediterranean. His task was to steal the cattle of Geryon, a monster with three heads and six arms. These cattle were guarded by another multi-headed creature, the two-headed dog Orthrus. Heracles killed both Orthrus and Geryon (as well as Geryon’s herdsman Erytion) and herded the cattle, with some difficulty, to Eurystheus in Greece.
11. The Apples of the Hesperides
According to the best-known version of the myth, Heracles was originally instructed to complete only ten labors for Eurystheus. But after Heracles had finished his tenth labor, Eurystheus demanded two more. He claimed that the slaying of the Hydra did not count because Heracles had been helped by his nephew Iolaus, and the cleaning of the Augean stables did not count because Heracles had received payment for his labor.
Eurystheus sent Heracles to retrieve the golden apples from the mythical Hesperides, located in a remote region in the far western Mediterranean. According to some versions, Heracles caught the shapeshifting Nereus and forced him to reveal the location of the Hesperides; in other versions, it was the Titan Prometheus who gave this information to Heracles.
The golden apples, which were sacred to Hera, were protected by a many-headed dragon named Ladon. Heracles shot the dragon but was unable to gain entry into the garden.
In the end, Heracles managed to convince the Titan Atlas to get the apples for him (in some versions, Atlas was the father of the maidens guarding the garden). Since Atlas had been tasked by Zeus to hold up the heavens for eternity, Heracles agreed to shoulder the burden for him while he retrieved the apples.
When Atlas came back with the promised fruit, he tried to leave Heracles holding the heavens for him, but Heracles was able to trick Atlas into taking them back. Heracles then collected the apples and returned to Eurystheus.
Heracles’ final labor was the most daunting: to go down to the Underworld and bring back Cerberus, Hades’ three-headed guard dog. Against all odds, Heracles was able to cross into the Underworld, wrestle Cerberus, and convince Hades to let him bring the dog to Eurystheus.
There is a similar myth about Heracles being forced to undergo a period of servitude in order to atone for a crime: this time, Heracles was told to serve the Lydian queen Omphale after he went mad and threw his friend Iphitus from a city wall to his death.
As Omphale’s slave, Heracles was forced to wear women’s clothing and do what was traditionally considered women’s work (such as weaving) while Omphale wore his lion skin and wielded his club. Eventually, Omphale freed Heracles and became his wife.
Other myths take Heracles to almost every corner of the known world. In Africa, Heracles fought and killed the giant Antaeus. A son of the earth, Antaeus was invincible as long as he was in contact with the ground. Heracles finally defeated him by lifting him into the air and breaking his back.
In Asia, Heracles sacked Troy after its king, Laomedon, cheated him. Laomedon had promised to give Heracles his prize horses if the hero rescued his daughter Hesione from a sea monster. Heracles saved Hesione, but Laomedon refused to hand over the horses. This did not sit well with Heracles, who sacked Troy, killed Laomedon, and claimed the horses he had been promised.
On another adventure, in the Caucasus, Heracles freed the Titan Prometheus from his torture. As punishment for stealing fire from the gods, Zeus had chained Prometheus to a mountain and sent an eagle every day to eat his liver, which would grow back only to be eaten again the next day. Heracles killed the eagle and broke Prometheus’ chains.
Heracles also traveled with Jason and the Argonauts to Colchis (on the eastern coast of the Black Sea) to steal the Golden Fleece from King Aeetes. Heracles was accompanied by the young Hylas, who was his shield bearer and lover. On one of the Argonauts’ stops on their way to Colchis, however, Hylas disappeared. Heracles went in search of him, and the Argonauts left without them. Heracles thus did not make it to Colchis with the Argonauts.
According to some traditions, Heracles even went up to Olympus to help the gods in their war against the Giants.
After defeating the river god Achelous in a wrestling competition, Heracles carried away the Calydonian princess Deianira as his bride. As the newlyweds traveled to Heracles’ home, the centaur Nessus offered to help Deianira cross a river. But while Heracles was still making the crossing, Nessus tried to run off with Deianira. Heracles, angry, shot Nessus with one of the arrows tipped with the poisonous blood of the Hydra.
The dying Nessus, knowing that his blood had been tainted by the Hydra’s poison and hoping for revenge, gave his bloody tunic to Deianira. He told her to keep the tunic and to use it as a love charm if she ever needed to reignite her husband’s feelings for her.
Years later, Deianira became convinced that Heracles had a new lover. Remembering Nessus, she gave Heracles the bloody tunic. As soon as Heracles put it on, however, he was poisoned by the blood of the Hydra. When Heracles tried to remove the tunic, his skin came off with it.
Heracles began dying in extreme agony. He built a pyre, climbed on top of it, and begged his family and friends to set it on fire. Only Philoctetes (or Philoctetes’ father, Poeas, in some versions) agreed to do so, and in return Heracles gifted him his bow and arrows. Many years later, Philoctetes would use the bow of Heracles in the Trojan War.
After his body was consumed by the flames, Heracles became a god. When Heracles arrived at Olympus, Hera was finally persuaded to put aside her hatred of him, and he was married to Hebe, one of Zeus and Hera’s daughters and the goddess of youth.
During his life, Heracles was married several times and took many lovers, most of whom gave him children (primarily boys). Some of his most famous children included Telephus, his son by Auge, and Tlepolemus, his son by Astyoche. Both Telephus and Tlepolemus played a role in the saga of the Trojan War.
Heracles’ most important son by his wife Deianira, Hyllus, would invade the Peloponnese and fight a war against Eurystheus after Heracles’ death. Several generations later, Heracles’ descendants (also called the Heraclidae) invaded Greece and took over the Peloponnese. This would later come to be known as the “Dorian Invasion.” Throughout Greek history, the Spartans and many other Peloponnesian kingdoms who identified as Dorians claimed that they were descended from Heracles.
As the most “Panhellenic” of the Greek heroes, Heracles was worshiped widely throughout the Greek world as both a hero and a god. Festivals and temples of Heracles were especially prominent in Thebes (which claimed to be the hero’s birthplace) and Sparta, whose kings claimed to be the hero’s direct descendants.
In many parts of Greece, Heracles was worshipped as a hero as well as a god, and festivals in his honor were usually called “Heracleia.” Such festivals are known to have been celebrated throughout the important regions of Attica (especially Cynosarges and Marathon),7 the Peloponnese (Sicyon, Sparta, etc.),8 and Boeotia (Thebes, Thisbe, Tipha, Siphae, etc.).9 In northern Greece, a festival of Heracles was celebrated in Ambracia, the main city of Epirus.10 Another festival in Heracles’ honor, called the Iolaia, was held in the city of Thebes.
There were many major and minor temples of Heracles scattered across the Greek world. In Attica, important sanctuaries to Heracles were located at Cynosarges and Marathon, both sites where the Heracleia was celebrated. Numerous temples and sanctuaries of Heracles could also be found in Boeotia, including at Thebes, Thespiae, Thisbe, Tipha, and Orchomenus,11 as well as at Argos and Nemea.12 In Sparta, we are told that there was a temple of Heracles close to the city walls.13
Heracles’ sanctuary in Thebes seems to have been particularly elaborate, boasting temples, a gymnasium, and a race course. Also in Thebes were the tombs of the children of Heracles and Megara, whom Heracles had killed in a fit of madness; nearby, a kind of religious relic, was a stone called the “Chastiser,” which Athena was thought to have thrown at Heracles to end his killing spree (and to prevent him from killing his foster father Amphitryon too).14
There were also more remote temples of Heracles. In northern Greece, there are traces of a temple dedicated to Heracles and his mother, Alcemene. On Mount Oeta, the site of Heracles’ death, a temple from the third century BCE has been excavated. There is also a Doric temple of Heracles, probably built in the beginning of the fifth century BCE, at Acragas in Sicily.
The Romans, who worshiped Heracles as Hercules, dedicated various temples and altars to him in the city of Rome as well as throughout Italy and the Roman Empire.
Heracles is one of the most commonly portrayed Greek mythological characters in modern popular culture (though he is usually called by his Roman name, Hercules). Heracles was featured in dozens of the “sword-and-sandal” films popular in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s. Some of the most famous of these include: Hercules (1958) and Hercules Unchained (1959), starring the bodybuilder Steve Reeves as Hercules; Jason and the Argonauts (1963); and Hercules in New York (1970), in which Hercules, played by the bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger, time travels to twentieth-century New York City.
The myth of Heracles was adapted for a younger audience in Disney’s Hercules (1997). In the 1990s, Kevin Sorbo played the hero in the television series Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and in a few made-for-television movies. More recently, Hercules was played by Dwayne Johnson in Hercules (2014). Heracles (or Hercules) also features in other media, including Rick Riordan’s young adult book series Percy Jackson and the Olympians.
In popular culture, Heracles has usually been depicted as a strongman or brute: in television and film, for example, the role of Heracles/Hercules has typically gone to bodybuilders or athletes (Steve Reeves, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Dwayne Johnson, etc.). Heracles tends to be treated as the archetype of the mortal hero or demigod, with a strong emphasis on his larger-than-life exploits.
In Archaic Greece, some poets, most notably Peisander (seventh century BCE) and Panyassis (fifth century BCE), wrote long epics describing Heracles and his exploits, but these have not survived. Still, Heracles was a popular character in antiquity, and his myth was featured in many works of poetry and prose. The following is a roughly chronological list of some important Greek and Roman examples (note that in Roman sources, Heracles would have been called Hercules).
Homer: Heracles is mentioned in both the Iliad and Odyssey, the earliest surviving examples of Greek literature (usually dated today to the eighth century BCE). In the Iliad, there are several allusions to Heracles’ conquest of Troy in the time of Laomedon (7.451–53; 20.145–48; 21.442–57). In the Odyssey, Odysseus glimpses the ghost of Heracles during his journey to the underworld (11.601–4).
Hesiod: Heracles and his exploits feature in several seventh-century BCE poems attributed to Hesiod, such as the Theogony and the Catalogue of Women. Heracles’ battle with Ares’ son Cycnus is the subject of the Shield of Heracles.
Pindar: Heracles frequently shows up in the poems of Pindar (ca. 518–446 BCE). Nemean Ode 1, for example, tells the story of how Heracles killed the serpents sent by Hera while still in the cradle, and his heroic exploits as an adult are mentioned in many other poems, including Olympian Odes 9 and 10, Pythian Ode 4, Nemean Odes 3 and 4, and Isthmian Odes 4 and 6. Pindar also portrays Heracles as the founder of the Olympic Games (Olympian Odes 2.3–4, 3.11–40, 6.67–69, 10.25–26, 45–62).
Sophocles: The tragedy Trachinian Women (ca. 450–425 BCE) tells the story of Heracles’ death.
Euripides: Heracles is a character in a few of Euripides’ tragedies, such as Alcestis (ca. 438 BCE), in which Heracles saves his friend Admetus’ wife Alcestis from Death, and Heracles (ca. 416 BCE), which tells the story of Heracles’ murder of his family.
Aristophanes: Heracles shows up as a character in Aristophanes’ comedies Birds and Frogs. In his comedic persona, Heracles is portrayed as an oafish and gluttonous brute.
Theocritus: Idyll 13 (third century BCE) relates the story of Heracles’ young male lover Hylas, who was abducted by water nymphs while he and Heracles were traveling with Jason and the Argonauts. Heracles also features in other Idylls, especially 24 and 25.
Apollonius: Heracles plays an important role in the Argonautica, a third-century BCE epic poem recounting the story of Jason and the Argonauts.
Strabo, Geography: A late first-century BCE geographical treatise and an important source for many local Greek myths, institutions, and religious practices from antiquity.
Pausanias, Description of Greece: A second-century CE travelogue; like Strabo’s Geography, an important source for local myths and customs.
Propertius: The sad story of Heracles’ male lover Hylas is recounted in one of the Elegies (1.20) of the first-century BCE poet Propertius.
Ovid: Many of Heracles’ exploits are recounted in the Metamorphoses and the Fasti, both probably composed around 8 CE. Ovid also dealt with the myth of Heracles in Heroides 9 (25–16 BCE), an epistolary poem that takes the form of a letter to Heracles written by his wife Deianira.
Seneca: Two of Seneca’s tragedies (first century CE) recount important events from Heracles’ life: The Madness of Heracles tells the story of Heracles’ murder of his family, and Heracles on Oeta tells the story of Heracles’ death.
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica: Like Apollonius’ earlier Argonautica, this Latin epic about Jason and the Argonauts (late first century CE) features Heracles.
Mythological Handbooks (Greek and Roman)
Diodorus of Sicily, Library of History: A work of universal history, covering events from the creation of the cosmos to Diodorus’ own time (mid-first century BCE). The myths of Heracles are described in Book 4.
Apollodorus, Library: A mythological handbook from the first century BCE or the first few centuries CE. The myths of Heracles are treated in Books 1 and 2.
Hyginus, Fabulae: A Latin mythological handbook (first or second century CE) that includes sections on the myths of Heracles.
Blanshard, Alastair. Hercules: A Heroic Life. London: Granta, 2005.
Brommer, Frank. Heracles: The Twelve Labors of the Hero in Ancient Art and Literature. Translated by Shirley Schwarz. New Rochelle, NY: A. D. Caratzas, 1986.
Burkert, Walter. “Heracles and the Master of Animals.” In Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual, 78–98. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
Galinsky, Karl. The Herakles Theme: The Adaptations of the Hero in Literature from Homer to the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Blackwell, 1972.
Gantz, Timothy. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. 2 vols. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
Graf, Fritz, Anne Ley, and Ernst Badian. “Heracles.” In Brill’s New Pauly, edited by Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, Christine F. Salazar, Manfred Landfester, and Francis G. Gentry. Published online 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e509010.
Graves, Robert. The Greek Myths. London: Penguin, 1955.
Kerényi, Károly. The Heroes of the Greeks. London: Thames and Hudson, 1974.
Kirk, G. S. “The Mythical Life of Heracles.” In The Nature of Greek Myths, 176–212. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974.
Padilla, Mark W. The Myths of Herakles in Ancient Greece: Survey and Profile. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1998.
Rose, H. J. A Handbook of Greek Mythology. London: Methuen, 1929.
Smith, William. “Heracles.” In A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. London: Spottiswoode and Company, 1873. Perseus Digital Library. Accessed March 12, 2021. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DH%3Aentry+group%3D7%3Aentry%3Dheracles-bio-14.
Stafford, Emma. Herakles. New York: Routledge, 2012.
Theoi Project. “Heracles.” Published online 2000–2017. https://www.theoi.com/greek-mythology/heracles.html.
Vollkommer, Rainer. Herakles in the Art of Classical Greece. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1988.